Category: French renaissance timeline

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors and successor monarchies ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in until the fall of the Second French Empire inwith several interruptions.

Sometimes included as 'Kings of France' [1] are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynastywhich ruled from until[2] and of the Carolingianswho ruled until with some interruptions. In August the Treaty of Verdun divided the Frankish realm into three kingdoms, one of which was short-lived; the other two evolved into France and, eventually, Germany.

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By this time the eastern and western parts of the land already had different languages and culture. Accordingly this list of monarchs begins inas this is the earliest date on which France may be said to exist. For the earlier Frankish kings see List of Frankish kings. The Capetian dynastythe male-line descendants of Hugh Capetincluded the first rulers to adopt the title of 'King of France' for the first time with Philip II r. The Capetians ruled continuously from to and again from to The branches of the dynasty which ruled afterhowever, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois until and Bourbon until During the brief period when the French Constitution of was in effect —92 and after the July Revolution inthe style of " King of the French " was used instead of "King of France and Navarre ".

It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchywhich linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France. With the House of Bonaparte" Emperors of the French " ruled in 19th-century France between andagain inand between and It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century.

It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France. In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from to and again infounded and ruled by Napoleon Iand the second from tofounded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III also known as Louis-Napoleon. They used the title " Emperor of the French ". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings.

In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from —60,and — also claimed the title of King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control untilbut bythe English had been expelled from all of France save Calais and the Channel Islandsand Calais itself fell in Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD.

The family consolidated its power in the 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the real powers behind the Merovingian kings. The dynasty is named after one of these mayors of the palace, Charles Martelwhose son Pepin the Short dethroned the Merovingians inand with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks.

For earlier rulers, see List of Frankish kings. The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Pariswas chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral inthough he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in The fifteenth century opens with civil unrest as the Armagnacs and Burgundians, two powerful political factions, war for control of France during the frequent periods of insanity suffered by King Charles VI r.

At the turn of the sixteenth century, France is engaged in the Habsburg-Valois Wars for the takeover of several Italian city-states. By mid-century, followers of John Calvin — instigate the Reformation in France.

French Protestants, called Huguenots, are brutally suppressed; the latter decades of the century are occupied by civil war between Protestant and Catholic groups, until the Edict of Nantes grants Protestants freedom of worship under Henry IV r. The dukes of Burgundy are an influential presence in French politics, involved in various struggles for control of the throne. Christine de Pisan —ca. The French victory owes much to the intervention of Joan of Arc ca.

Taken prisoner by the English inshe is burned at the stake in Rouen. Netherlandish painter Jean Hey Master of Moulins active —called pictor egregius outstanding painter by contemporary author Jean Lemaire, is in the service of Bourbon dukes in France. Charles VIII r. The tensions caused by foreign powers, notably France and Spain, intent on the takeover of Italian city-states leads to the Habsburg-Valois Wars or Italian Wars; — John Calvin born Jean Cauvin, —a French theologian working in Basel, completes The Institutes of the Christian Religionan influential work defining the principles of Protestant belief and justifying them on the basis of Scripture.

Calvinist theology includes the belief in predestination, by which only certain people—the elect—are chosen by God for salvation. Later in this year, Calvin settles in Geneva, where his ideas gain widespread acceptance by the s.

The Wars of Religion are fought both as an ongoing struggle for Huguenots French Protestants to attain freedom of worship, and as a culmination of tensions among the nobility, particularly between the Guise, a powerful Catholic family, and Protestant Bourbon princes. Michel de Montaigne — publishes his three-volume Essaysin which he examines such topics as friendship, religion, and death, all through the lens of his own experience. King Henry IV r. The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

France, — A. Valois rule— Bourbon rule, — Overview The fifteenth century opens with civil unrest as the Armagnacs and Burgundians, two powerful political factions, war for control of France during the frequent periods of insanity suffered by King Charles VI r. Key Events 15th century The dukes of Burgundy are an influential presence in French politics, involved in various struggles for control of the throne.

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Primary Chronology France, — A. Great Britain and Ireland, — A. Iberian Peninsula, — A. Low Countries, — A. Lists of Rulers List of Rulers of Europe.

See also All essays related to France, — A.

List of French monarchs

All works of art from France, — A.Jun 9, Giovanni de Verrazaro went on a voyage in He sailed across the Atlantic Coast of North America. He convinced the King of France that he would be the right man for the voyage. Jacques Cartier found the Gulf of St Lawrence in The King of France needed him to find more gold silk tea and spices.

Jul 3, The settlement is once where the Iroquois once lived. Samuel chooses to live there for the rest of his life. By the time he dies, there are about people living there. The 30 Year War started in to This happened in Central Europe.

This hsappened because of political pre-eminence. King Louis the 14 was crowned king in He sent out people to Africa, Asia and America. He formed colonies in those places.

Period: Jan 1, They fought, because because Charles IV died without a son to be an heir to the king. The two countries fought for not a hundred, but more than a hundred years, to be exact. They battled in France, England, Spain, and the low countries, which are now Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. It is debatable on who won.

Key Dates in Renaissance Philosophy, Politics, Religion, and Science

New France was the colony of France settlers in North America. They adapted there after the French had found Quebec, thus it was named "New France". The new French settlers were most notable by their valuable fur trade facilities and industries.Generally described as taking place from the 14th century to the 17th century, the Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature and art.

Some of the greatest thinkers, authors, statesmen, scientists and artists in human history thrived during this era, while global exploration opened up new lands and cultures to European commerce. The Renaissance is credited with bridging the gap between the Middle Ages and modern-day civilization.

During the Middle Agesa period that took place between the fall of ancient Rome in A. Some historians, however, believe that such grim depictions of the Middle Ages were greatly exaggerated, though many agree that there was relatively little regard for ancient Greek and Roman philosophies and learning at the time. During the 14th century, a cultural movement called humanism began to gain momentum in Italy. Among its many principles, humanism promoted the idea that man was the center of his own universe, and people should embrace human achievements in education, classical arts, literature and science.

The French Renaissance

Inthe invention of the Gutenberg printing press allowed for improved communication throughout Europe and for ideas to spread more quickly. As a result of this advance in communication, little-known texts from early humanist authors such as those by Francesco Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, which promoted the renewal of traditional Greek and Roman culture and values, were printed and distributed to the masses.

Additionally, many scholars believe advances in international finance and trade impacted culture in Europe and set the stage for the Renaissance. The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy, a place with a rich cultural history where wealthy citizens could afford to support budding artists. Members of the powerful Medici familywhich ruled Florence for more than 60 years, were famous backers of the movement.

Great Italian writers, artists, politicians and others declared that they were participating in an intellectual and artistic revolution that would be much different from what they experienced during the Dark Ages. Then, during the 15th century, Renaissance ideas spread from Italy to France and then throughout western and northern Europe.

Although other European countries experienced their Renaissance later than Italy, the impacts were still revolutionary.

french renaissance timeline

Some of the most famous and groundbreaking Renaissance intellectuals, artists, scientists and writers include the likes of:. Desiderius Erasmus — : Scholar from Holland who defined the humanist movement in Northern Europe.

Translator of the New Testament into Greek. Rene Descartes — : French philosopher and mathematician regarded as the father of modern philosophy. Galileo : Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer whose pioneering work with telescopes enabled him to describes the moons of Jupiter and rings of Saturn.

Placed under house arrest for his views of a heliocentric universe. Nicolaus Copernicus — : Mathematician and astronomer who made first modern scientific argument for the concept of a heliocentric solar system. Giotto : Italian painter and architect whose more realistic depictions of human emotions influenced generations of artists. Best known for his frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua.

William Tyndale — : English biblical translator, humanist and scholar burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English. Raphael — : Italian painter who learned from da Vinci and Michelangelo.

Art, architecture and science were closely linked during the Renaissance.With the end of the Ice Age, prehistoric man began to settle down in more permanent agricultural settlements Neolithic Revolution. When Augustus became emperor of Rome, the result was two centuries of relative peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana.

During the 2nd century, Romans brought Christianity into Gaul.

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However, by the third century the Roman Empire had begun its decline. The fourth century started with Barbarian invaders from the East such as the Franks, the Vandals and the Visigoths.

french renaissance timeline

People feared for their safety and began allying themselves with local lords in exchange for protection from the barbarians. In this way, the feudal society that would characterize so much of the Medieval Age began to emerge. In some ways Clovis' reign brought stability and unity to France, but in some ways it also contributed to fragmentation, because Clovis divided up the territory as gifts and rewards.

He expanded the Frankish kingdom and stopped the Muslim advance in Charlemagne continued the expansion of the Frankish kingdom. Charlemagne not only was an able military leader, but he was also a great supporter of education and the arts. In fact, there was a Carolingian renaissance during Charlemagne's rule.

Shortly after his death, however, the kingdom was divided. All of Charlemagne's sons died except for Louis the Pious, who reigned for 30 years and managed to keep the kingdom together. Louis and Charles agreed to keep the lands where they were most powerful Louis in German areas and Charles in Frankish areas.

They left Lothar with the unorganized lands in the middle. The Carolingian dynasty ended in when Hugh Capet was elected to the throne of France, beginning the Capetian Dynasty.

He also welcomed to France many Italian artists, such as Leonardo da Vinci. Their influence assured the success of the Renaissance style. The years between and saw an increase in the number of the Huguenots Protestantswhich led to the Wars of Religion between Catholics and Protestants.

Catherine de Medici ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of hundreds of Protestants.Timeline Index. The Renaissance from French: Renaissance "re-birth", Italian: Rinascimento, from rinascere "to be reborn" was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.

Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe. As a cultural movement, it encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch, the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, and gradual but widespread educational reform.

In politics, the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy, and in science an increased reliance on observation. Historians often argue this intellectual transformation was a bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern history. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".

There is a consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence, Italy, in the 14th century. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time; its political structure; the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici; and the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople at the hands of the Ottoman Turks The Middle Ages was the middle period in a schematic division of European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization.

It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western Roman Empire Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, who was one of the earliest humanists.

His rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist. He wrote his imaginative literature mostly in th He was the eldest son and heir of John the Blind, from whom he inherited Luxembourg and Bohemia on 26 August He was elected King of Germa His era name, Hongwu, means "Immensely Martial.

The Hundred Years' War was a series of wars waged from to by the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, also known as the House of Anjou, for the French throne, which had become vacant upon the extinction of the senior Capetian line Geoffrey Chaucer, known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to be buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey.

The Enlightenment: Crash Course European History #18

While he achieved fame during his lifetime a The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia, peaking in Europe from to The bacterium Yersinia pestis, which results in several form His era name means "Perpetually Jubilant". His usurpation of the throne is now sometimes called the "Second Founding" of the Ming.

He is generally Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici was an Italian banker, the first historically relevant member of Medici family of Florence, and the founder of the Medici bank.

french renaissance timeline

Zheng He, formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was originally born as Ma He in a Muslim family, later adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Cosimo di Giovanni de' Medici, called 'the Elder' and posthumously Father of the Nation Latin pater patriae was an Italian banker and politician, the first of the Medici political dynasty, de facto rulers of Florence during much of the Italian Rena Johannes Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced modern book printing.

His invention of mechanical movable type printing started the Printing Revolution and is widely regarded as the most important event of Mehmed IInicknamed the conqueror, was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire a short time in toand from to Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general Europe She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain.

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Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain unde Leonardo da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.The Black Death spread throughout Europe, killing a large percent of the population.

This made the people realize that the era would end if there was no change or evolution. After people realized that the Black Plague could wipe out the era ideas spread, and people started making art, culture, religion, and literal changes. The made the area of Florence and other places Rise. This also helped famous artists to spread new ideas. The de Medici family was a very powerful family of bankers. They were bankers for important people such as the pope.

They began to rise throughout the century. They were known as a family not to mess with. Leonardo was born inone of the reasons he is very important to the rise of art and the Renaissance is because he became a very famous artist. He inspired many other famous artists back then to start creating art and other things. This helped evolution and culture and inspired lots of changes. This technology would help the European literacy. During this time, Europe was being impacted by political events.

These events such as Julius II was going to be the new pope, this meant that the start of The Golden age was going to surface soon. The Peace of Augsburg helped with the tension that was created by the Reformation.

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It helped by allowing co-existing protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. Even though the Peace of Augsburg was helping, many rulers continued to take over.

IN the Reformation was signed. This helped divide Europe and the Roman Catholic church. Most princes were turned to believe in the Lutheran church at that time. The Council of Trent was the 19 ecumenical council of the Catholic church.


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